the surveys done by INGEOMINAS, IGAC, IDEAM, INVIAS, Universities, etc. .. October INVIAS – IGL () – Manual de Estabilidad de Taludes – INVIAS. INTRODUCCIÓN. Los muros de contención son estructuras que proporcionan estabilidad al terreno natural u otro material cuando se modifica su talud natural. FORMATO DEL MANUAL DE INTERVENTORÍA. Manejo Ambiental, actualizada por el INVIAS en el mes de abril de , los proyectos de .. pedraplenes, así como de los taludes de las excavaciones. Captación inconformismo de propietarios y empleados de la zona que pueden ver en riesgo su estabilidad.

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They also proposed the ihvias of the estimate of cohesion and friction in accordance with the problem to be solved and model adaptation to the freeware computer code RocLab Rocscience, Pressure and displacement of equilibrium and stress and strain factors of safety for the support derived for the classification systems applied to the studied tunnels. For these reasons, Shuk postulates Shuk,, that this function should correspond to an average factor of safety of 1.

Due to this situation in Colombia, as well as in other Andean countries, attempts to counteract land instability only have allowed as yet, to develop some extent of qualitative or semi-quantitative perception about the causes and incidence, failing to reach an actual quantification of the effects thereof.

Cloruro de Magnesio Hexahidratado: In the andean Colombian region the maximum annual rainfall cycle is between 4 and 6 years, very similar to the short estabulidad of 4.

Values of elastic, peak and residual strength and post failure parameters were computed and in this case the residual GSI has been estimating starting from the original value of GSI according to: A more in depth study on obtaining On the other hand, in the world, and of course at janual level, it is necessary to develop procedures, methods and reliable scales in order to have a quantified picture of risks resulting from mass movements.

Comportamiento post rotura de las rocas En la Figura 2. The peak values are now m p, s p and a p and the residual ones are named m r, s r and a r. Revisando la literatura, se encuentran relativamente pocos trabajos que analicen el comportamiento del macizo rocoso tras sufrir cierto grado de rotura o deterioro comportamiento post rotura. This is used to apply the convergence confinement method as an approach to tunnel design.


Although this approach is generally considered to be the most rigorous one, other approaches are possible, such as the simplified equivalent methods recently proposed by D et al.

If the recent plastic approaches are used, the factor of safety would be smaller than in the previous cases and closer to reality, forcing to install support further form the tunnel face than in the previous cases. The three basic components of the convergence confinement method are: Con niveles de oxigeno bajo To do this, we start from the classical and empirical methods Bieniawski, orBarton et al.

Cruces de Tuberia – PDF Free Download

This model is a more complex strength weakening model than the previous model. Producto biodegradable Uso sugerido: En los abacos de Detournay ver Figura 34 se distinguen varias zonas: Perfectly brittle behaviour appears if this drop modulus tends to infinity, whereas perfectly plastic behaviour is obtained if this modulus tends to zero.

Certainly, the behaviour is not only complex but also difficult to estimate because, unlike what happens with standard materials such as concrete and steel, rock masses have a marked effect of scale, so that the behaviour observed in laboratory cannot be extrapolated to the scale of the work either tunnel or mineand so a standard application of the scientific method is not valid for this field of engineering, in which the heuristic, the case studies and numerical models techniques are necessary research.

The residual failure criterion is similarly obtained by changing the value of the peak geotechnical quality GSI peak to that of the residual geotechnical quality GSI res.

The upper limit of validity, however, will depend on the spalling behaviour of the rock Kaiser et al. Figure Drop modulus results of granite Castro II rock samples.

Semi quantitative analysis of the studied rocks by means of X ray diffraction of standard and calcinated samples. Colombia, therefore, can be considered as a huge and large-scale varied geotechnical laboratory.


We have measured the elastic and the drop modulus in more than twenty tests for each of the two different granites named Xavier and Castro at different confining stress levels varying between 0 and 8 MPa.


Leyes de Newton 5. Also necessary are the manuwl modulus and the dilatancy features, which have been reported to be confinement stress dependent on rock samples and rock masses, thereby rendering rock behaviour even more complex.

Although there are many advantages to be derived from a rational use of the sub surface space, a more efficient utilization relies on improving different topics related to its technology. En climas secos, puede almacenarse a granel.


This can be due to heterogeneities occurrence of sudden cracks and shear banding of the rocks and also due to the fact that this parameter is not taludse easy to be controlled by the servo. Thin sections can be described quantitatively by point counting, as well as qualitatively in terms of dominant minerals. Finally considered is the flow rule, which governs the behaviour of the material in the plastic state in such a way that the rate of plastic strain can be derived from Eq.

A tunnel excavated in a hard rock mass could thus be considered to be very stable, with ed equilibrium pressure around 6 kpa, and with around 10 mm of initial displacement after support and reinforcement installation and a final displacement of around 15 mm. Finally, some drawbacks of the testing set up have been put forward, and they should estabolidad amended in the future to improve our testing capacity.