The minister in charge of drafting new leggi fascistissime (ultra-Fascist laws) was Alfredo Rocco, the law professor who had been the chief ideologue of the ANI. Palazzo-Vidoni Pact Trade unions under Fascist control. Leggi Fascistissime Mussolini – head of the government. Opposition and free trade unions. Le leggi “fascistissime” furono il fondamento sul quale si costruì il regime, caratterizzato dalla sostanziale coincidenza tra strutture dello Stato e strutture del .

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At the beginning of the military situation for Italy looked bleak. The collapse of the African front on 4 November and the Allied landings in North Africa on 8—12 November had exposed Italy to an invasion of the Allied leggk. Moreover, Italy’s DuceBenito Mussoliniwas persuaded the war could be decided in the Mediterranean theaterfascisrissime wanted to convince Hitler to seek a separate peace with Russia and move the bulk of the German Army south.

The pressing request for reinforcements to defend the lebgi in Tunisia was refused by the Wehrmachtwhich no longer trusted the Italian will to maintain resistance. Frugoni and Cesa Fascistiasime, diagnosed gastritis and duodenitis of nervous origin, excluding, after some hesitation, the possibility of cancer. In this situation, several groups belonging to four different circles the royal court, the antifascist parties, the fascism and the general Staff started to look for a way out.

Unfortunately, none of them understood that the war had become ideological with the declaration of Casablanca stating that the Allies would only accept unconditional surrender.

Moreover, despite the Crown Princess’ involvement, the Anglo-Americans expected a move from higher-placed personalities, like the King, and disregarded contacts with these groups.

The antifascist parties, weakened by 20 years of dictatorship, were still in an embryonic state. Last peggi not least, Victor Emmanuel retained his trust in Mussolini, and he hoped that the Duce could save the situation once again. Ambrosio was persuaded that the war was lost for Italy, but he never thought to take a personal initiative to change the situation without first consulting with Victor Emmanuel. Moreover, he tried to bring fsscistissime to Italy as many forces as possible among those which were abroad, but it was difficult to do that without raising the suspicions of the Germans.

On 6 February fasfistissime, Mussolini carried out the fascistisskme wide-ranging government reshuffle in 21 years of Fascist power. In April the Duce took two other important actions: The fall of Tunis on 13 May radically changed the strategic situation. Now Italy was exposed to an invasion, fscistissime it became imperative for Germany to control the country, which had turned into an external bastion of the Reich.

To take control of Italy and forcibly disarm the Italian armed forces after their expected armistice with the Allied forces, the Germans developed plans for operations Alarich and Konstantindevoted respectively to the occupation of Italy herself and the Balkan areas occupied by the Italian Army. Fascistissim small island had been turned by Mussolini into a citadel, but — unlike Malta — after a week-long heavy bombardment, it was reduced to a smoking crater, and fell to the Allies almost without resistance.

In mid-May, the King started to consider the problem of exiting the war. Both pressed the royal officials for the arrest of Mussolini and the nomination of a military government.

Moreover, he was personal friend of Duke levgi, who had been his aide-de-campand both — like Caviglia — were freemasons. On 4 June, the King received Grandi, who was still peggi of the Chamber of Fasci and Corporations despite being dropped from the cabinet.

Grandi was one of the Fascist Party’s top leadership, the gerarchi ; although he had been a close colleague of Mussolini for over 20 years, he was more a right-wing conservative than a Fascist. He viewed Fascism as an ephemeral phenomenon confined to the lifespan of Mussolini.

An experienced diplomat he was former foreign minister and ambassador in the UKa staunch enemy of Germany and with a large circle of friends in the British establishment among others, he was a personal friend of Churchill[40] he had often been considered the most likely successor to the Duce.

On 25 March Victor Emmanuel had awarded him the highest royal honor, the collare dell’Annunziatawhich allowed him to be called “cousin of the king” and gave him unrestricted access to the Royal House. During his last meeting with the Leggk before 25 July, Grandi communicated to Victor Emmanuel his bold plan to eliminate Mussolini and attack the Germans.

At the end, he asked Grandi to ease his action by activating fascistissiem parliament and the Grand Council, and finished his speech telling him “Trust your king! Si fidi del suo re [46] At the end of the meeting it was apparent to Grandi that the King was finally aware of the situation, but also that his legg to procrastinate was always present.


In the meantime, on 19 Junethe last cabinet meeting of the Fascist age took place. This was one among the many signs that the Legggi charisma was crumbling even among his entourage.

Each day, people devoted to him, agents of the OVRA and the Germans told him that several plots were going on, but he never reacted, telling each one that they were reading too many crime novels or were affected by persecution mania.

On 24 June Mussolini gave his last important speech as prime minister. It went down in history as leggk “boot topping” Italian: On the night of 10 July the Allies landed in Sicily.

On 16 July, Bastianini went to Palazzo Venezia the Duce’s seat to show to Mussolini a telegram to be sent to Hitler, where he reproached the Germans for not having sent reinforcements. Mussolini agreed, under the condition of not being directly involved. On the Fascist side, after the fall of Tunis and Pantelleria, it was clear to many that the war had been lost. Fascistissie of them looked to the King, and many at Mussolini.

One big problem was to find an institution suitable for a political action. Among the four existing state institutions, the Party, the Chamber of Fasci and Corporationsthe Senate and the Grand Council, only the last two were suitable for an action: In the event, a motion by 61 senators on 22 July asking to peggi the Senate was blocked by Mussolini, and only Mussolini had the power to summon the Grand Council and determine its agenda.

His idea was to depose Mussolini, let the king make a government without Fascists, and at the same time attack fzscistissime German army in Italy. Only thus was there a keggi that the declaration of Casablanca could be mitigated in the case of Italy. Like Farinacci, for him the only solution was the political “embalming” of Mussolini and the pursuit of a total warbut while Farinacci acted in close cooperation with the Germans, Scorza thought that the power should be assumed directly by the Party, which had been largely discredited in the previous few years.

As written above, the group was divided: Farinacci and Scorza were for a totalitarian solution together with Germany, the others for giving back the emergency war powers to the king. On 15 July the King met Badoglio — who in the meantime had declared to friends that he would organize a putsch with or without the King [39] — and fascistiswime him that he would be the new head of government.

In the meantime, the fall of Sicily, where the Italian army had melted away, occurred in a matter of days, and the armed forces appeared incapable of resisting an invasion of mainland Italy without massive German help.

There Mussolini, Bastianini and Ambrosio met with Hitler and the generals of the OKW to discuss the situation and the possible countermeasures. Ambrosio prepared for the meeting meticulously, and the day before spoke plainly to Mussolini, telling him that his duty was to exit the war in the next 15 days.

Moreover, they proposed that the Axis supreme command in the peninsula be taken over by a German general possibly Rommel. The first two hours of the meeting were as usual a monologue by Hitler, blaming the Italians for their weak military performance and asking for draconian measures: Mussolini was unable to speak a word.

After lunch the Duce interrupted the meeting scheduled to last 3 daysto Hitler’s chagrin.

Le Leggi Fascistissime by XXX XXX on Prezi

At the same time, as nothing had happened so far, Grandi decided to move. It was finally the ” gioco grosso “, the great game, which Grandi had looked for in vain until now. After the failure of the Feltre meeting and the first bombing of Rome, the crisis accelerated. During the second meeting, in the evening, the Duce told him that he had decided to write to Hitler, confessing the need for Italy to abandon the alliance.

Still angry about the missed opportunity to do this fxscistissime Feltre, the indignant Ambrosio offered his resignation to the Duce, who rejected it. Therefore, he decided to set the putsch in motion. At the same time, Grandi and Luigi Federzoni nationalist leader and Grandi’s close ally were trying to estimate how many among the 27 members of the Grand Council would vote for his document. They concluded that of the 27 members, 4 were for it, 7 against and 16 undecided.


Consequently, Grandi decided to write his OdG in a vague form ldggi leave each one to make his own interpretation. In the second part, the fascistixsime asked for the restoration of the pre-Fascist institutions and laws. The end of the document was an appeal to the King: For Grandi the approval of the OdG would be the signal that the King was waiting for. Scorza sent the invitation one day later. The Duce called it a “not admissible and cowardly” document.

In the morning of 22 July a most important meeting took place: Apparently the King agreed with him, as this would explain why the Duce was not worried at all about the outcome of the Grand Council meeting. Anyway, at the end of the meeting the two men reached two quite different conclusions: Here they demonstrated that the assembly had the constitutional power to remove Mussolini.

Tribunale speciale per la difesa dello Stato (1926-1943)

Because of these laws, the Duce ruled the country on behalf of the King, who remained always the source of the executive power. Because of that, if the Grand Council, which was the trait d’union between Fascism and the state, passed a vote of no confidence on the dictator, the King would have been entitled to remove him and nominate his successor. Grandi was reluctant to accept him, since he was the son-in-law of Mussolini and was known for his superficial and inconstant character, but Ciano insisted, unaware that this decision would have provoked his death six months later in Verona.

After that, Grandi had as a guest at his office in the parliament Farinacci, showing him his OdG.

Farinacci told Grandi that he accepted the first part of the document, but that he did not agree at all on the rest: Dino Grandi[]. The walls were decorated with blue velvet tapestries and large paintings, and in the marble floor were etched inscriptions with the date of the restoration, Year VII of the Fascist calendar.

For the first time in the history of the Grand Council, neither the bodyguard of Mussolini the Duce’s musketeers nor a detachment of the “M” battalions were present in the massive Renaissance palace. He had also taken the precaution of revising his will and going to confession before the meeting.

He summarized the history of the supreme command, trying to show that the attribution to him had been sponsored by Badoglio. The Duce spoke calmly and confidently: After the Duce’s introduction, De Bono one of the two remaining living Quadrumvirsthen Farinacci and then De Vecchi the other quadrumvir, who gladly accepted under the table one of Grandi’s grenades spoke in turn.

Grandi followed, speaking for one and a half hours. He read out and explained his document, concluding his speech with Mussolini’s citation of “Let perish all the factions, so that the Nation can live”.

Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy

After some minor interventions spoke Bottai, the Fascist intellectual, who made a purely political speech, defending the OdG. The Duce announced that, due to the length of the meeting, some comrades had asked for a postponement to the next day. Never before in the years long history of the assembly had ,eggi dared to ask for a vote: At midnight the meeting was suspended for 10 minutes: After other interventions, for and against the OdG, Mussolini spoke again, and told the participants to reflect on their decision, since legvi approval of Grandi’s OdG would imply the end of Fascism.

He also cautioned against the fascitissime that the Anglo-Americans would be content with that, whereas what they really wanted was the end of Italy, which under his rule had become too strong. His speech, which Mussolini angrily interrupted, dealt a death blow to the Duce’s hopes of defeating Grandi, since the Party was totally discredited among almost all the high-ranking Fascists.

At the end of Scorza’s intervention the old senator Suardocrying and still under the effects of the words of Mussolini, announced that he was withdrawing his signature from the OdG Grandi and proposed to unify the three documents. The OdG Grandi was the fascistiissime voted on, since fascistiswime had the most proponents.

After him, old Marshal de Bono said “yes”, and towed the undecided with him. In the end, the OdG Grandi obtained 19 votes for, with 8 against. The Duce concluded, declaring: