In economics an isocost line shows all combinations of inputs which cost the same total amount given total cost of inputs. A line joining tangency points of isoquants and isocosts (with input prices held constant) is called the expansion path. Isoquants: An isoquant (equal quantity) is a curve that shows the combinations of certain inputs such as Labor (L) and Capital (K) that will produce a certain. Class 3 isocosts & isoquants. 1. ISOQUANTS Equal Quantity of Production; 2. MEANING OF ISOQUANTS • Isoquants are the curves, which.

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It looks for that factor combination that is on the lowest of the isocost lines. The iso cost line will shift to the right when money spent on factors increases or firm could buy more as the factor prices are given. Iso quants are equal revenue lines.

In case of two variable factors, labour and capital, an isoquant appears as a curve on a graph the axes of which measure quantities of the two factors. Views Read View source View history. If the isoquants are smooth and convex to the origin and the cost-minimizing input bundle involves a positive amount of each input, then this bundle satisfies the following two conditions:.

To find the least cost combination of inputs to produce a given output, we need to construct such equal cost lines or isocost lines. And isoquant must be convex to the origin. Ridge lines joins points on the various isoquants where the isoquants have zero slope and thus zero MRTSlk.

Isoquant and Isocost Lines (With Diagram) | Economics

An isoquant traces out the combinations of any two inputs which yield the same level of output. Iso cost line shows various combinations of labour and capital that the firm can buy for a given factor prices.


This is picturised by his budget line called isocost line. Iso quant is also known as Production indifference curve. To construct isocost lines we need information about the market prices of the two factors. The producer must have sufficient capacity to buy necessary factor inputs to be able to reach its desired production level.

Isoquants are typically drawn as being convex to the origin because of the assumed substitutability of inputs.

For the two production inputs labour and capital, with fixed unit costs of the inputs, the equation of the isocost line is. Cost minimisation occurs when an isoquant is just tangent to but does not cross an isocost line. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Specifically, the point of tangency between any isoquant and an isocost line gives the lowest-cost combination of inputs that can produce the level of output associated with that isoquant.

The choice is based on the prices of factors of production at a particular time.

It is also known as the desired rate of factor substitution, i. So, like the consumer the producer has also to operate under a budget resource constraint. If the price of labour falls the firm could buy more of labour and the line will shift away from the origin.

When the amount of money spent by the isoxosts changes, the isocost line may shift but its slope remains the same.

Isoquant and Isocost Lines (With Diagram) | Economics

The firm would not operate on the positively sloped portion of an isoquant because it could produce the same level of quantity with less capital isoquwnts labour. The isocost line is combined with the isoquant map to determine the optimal production point at any given level of output. This page was last edited on 20 Novemberat An iisoquants shows the various combination of two inputs that can be used to produce a specific level of output.


The cost-minimization problem of the firm is to choose an input bundle KL feasible for the output level y that costs as little as possible. The slope of an isoquant gives the marginal rate of technical substitution MKTS defined isosuants the increase in the quantity of one factor that is required to replace a unit decrease in another factor, when output is held constant along any isoquant. A line joining tangency points of isoquants and isocosts with input prices held constant is called the expansion path.

No two factors are perfect substitutes. This condition makes sense: With the change in the factor prices the slope of anc cost lien will change. If labour were relatively more expensive, the isocost lines would be steeper in Fig.

All these and other various combinations are shown in Fig. Retrieved from ” http: The slope of iso cost line indicates the ratio of the factor prices. Here, the firm seeks to minimise its cost of producing a given level of output. Then an outlay of Rs.

For the convenience of the students, we can state them as follows. The slope depends on the prices of factors of production and the amount of money which the firm spends on the factors. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A set of isocost lines can be drawn for different levels of factor prices, or different sums of money. Thus at a point of equilibrium marginal physical productivities of the two factors must be equal the ratio of their prices.

The essential condition is that the slope of the isocost line must equal the slope of the isocostz.