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This paper is a continuation of a paper presented at the Metanexus Meeting, where it was proposed some essential issues to consider for an integration of knowledge: The level of reliability of the disciplines. Their control from inside and outside. The epistemological institutions to ask for control. In this paper, there is an addition of some concrete points of view to focus the discussion in a second level of reflection, with some contributions to the reflection on the integration of the knowledge originated in the Latin American area.

Firstly, it will be remembered the principle of distinction between science and religion, to allow a non ambiguous dialogue between both of them. Finally, I am going to add a personal point of view about the integration of knowledge. Today it is clear the importance of establishing the criteria of differentiation of science and religion. This is a warning to avoid the syncretism in the mixture between science and religion.

Science and religion have their own different fields and it is important to respect them. He defines the term magisterium as a domain where one form of teaching holds the appropriate tools for meaningful discourse and resolution.

Thus, according to NOMA, the magisterium of science covers the empirical realm: The magisterium of religion extends over questions of ultimate meaning and moral value. These two magisteria do not overlap, nor do they condlicto all inquiry consider, for example, the magisterium of art and the meaning of beauty.

In conclusion, NOMA demarcates the limits between the sciences and religion in the spirit of the conf,icto age which established the autonomy of different disciplines.

Stephen Jay Gould | Open Library

After this delimitation of fields, it is necessary to search for the connection among sciences, philosophy and religion. In my paper I tried to organize this topic by the delimitation of the places and reliability of different disciplines. Now, I propose three concrete perspectives of integration of science and religion, originate in the Latin-American region.

Some authors consider that rwligion analogical hermeneutics is a new discipline 5. In any case, it could be considered as an inter-discipline. The natural sciences have the tendency to go toward an unequivocal meaning of the concepts. In any case, they tend to raise a mathematic or unequivocal definition of the phenomena.

Human sciences today have also a mathematic orientation statistics, chronologies, reductionism to biochemistry processes, etc. Anyway, certain lines of the philosophy of the last century —especially in the continental European area- have developed a hermeneutic program of philosophical reflection. Interpretation of texts -and then the rest of reality- is the task of hermeneutics. This way of understanding explores the different meanings of the texts. Maurcio Beuchot analyses the history of the fundamentation of the human sciences from Dilthey to Gadamer and Ricoeur 6.

In fact, Dilthey distinguishes confpicto sciences of the nature and sciences of the spirit. Dilthey searches for an epistemology and methodology for the human sciences or sciences of the spirit. In his last writings he puts in the ocnflicto the basis and methodology of the human sciences. After him, Stpehen applies the hermeneutics to the phenomenology, although who apply the hermeneutics to the human versuz are Gadamer and Ricoeur. In the traces of Heidegger, Gadamer considers that the experiences that give the criteria for the hermeneutic work are those originated in the jau of the art, the history and the philosophy.


He indicates that hermeneutics is a fenomenology of the understanding of meaning, and that is the basis of the human sciences. The French philosopher Paul Ricoeur thinks also that hermeneutics is the fundamenta and the method of the social sciences. But the analogy is also the episteme of the human sciences, because it allows going from the knowledge of one-self, i. The meeting beteween hermeneutics and analogy produces the opportunity for the social sciences to get until the maximum of their possibilities.

Anyway, hermeneutics includes in it self the possibility of a diversity of interpretations and then the possibility bould the equivocal ones. Especially, Beuchot proposes the application of the analogic hermeneutics to the philosophy of sciences. Moreover, Beuchot applies his method to different cinflicto of the knowledge: Its method has an interesting fertility because it can include in it self the humanities and fals natural sciences.

Ros, Joandomènec

The Mexican philosopher sinthetysis its thinking and the possibilities of the analogic hermeneutics for the problems of some philosophies of our times:. It is an attempt to answer to that actually tension between the univocal hermeneutics, characteristic of the positivist thinking, and the equivocal hermeneutics of the relativistic philosophies, today expresses in the postmodernist thinking.

In brief, the analogical hermenutics is a contribution to think the integration of knowledge that allows locates the different sciences —human and natural ones- in conexion with their object of study. In this frame, it is possible reflect about the especiall relationship between sciences and religion.

In fact, it implies collaboration among differenciate sciences, where the moment of interpretation should be complementate galso an analogical moment 9. Juan Carlos Scannone Argentina tries to link human and natural sciences with philosophical reflection, and finally with the theology.

He understands the process of knowledge as a part of cultural life. In the modern period, the medieval hierarchy of knowledge disappears.

Every science understands something of reality and the unity of knowledge is in the totality of the knowledge. Religion gives the last meaning to the sciences, while it needs the scientific explanations to complete its view.

Scannone says that analogy, i. But the analogy should to confrontate with history, sciences and culture to allow a deep understanding of reality Since the Second Vatican Council, the Roman Catholic theology has emphasized the historical dimension of faith. The Latin American theology particularly developed a situated method and for this goal it necessary to ellaborate a local philosophy.

Scanonne worked in a Latin American philosophy. Briefly, he works for a simoultaneously situated and universal method.

Editions of Rocks of Ages: Science and Religion in the Fullness of Life by Stephen Jay Gould

In an article about the scientific and technological thougth in the Latin American culture 11Scannone considers that the techno-science implies a universal way of thougth that takes away the cultural differences and the ethic orientation. According to this thinker, the wisdom of the Latin American cultures has the ability to reorientate thecno-scientif rationality but respecting its autonomy and especifity. The situation of the techno-scientific rationality from the Latin American cultural wisdom is possible because it has a true rationality.

This rationality is global, established on the cultural ground and ethically orientated toward the justice, and impregnated for a Christian meaning of the life. An historic and personal perspective of knowledge: The map as a metaphor for understanding the dynamic confluence of knowledge and experience in the person. This is my own contribution, included in a personalistic, historical tradition of crhistian theology, especially founded in the contemporary thinkers. The individual man is he who versis and synthesizes the assemblage cienciz experiences including those which reach him by means of the objective frames of the culture.


In the light of this principle, I will try to outline some reflections of integrative character. Anthropological and Metaphysical Fundamentals: The human being is someone permanent in his nature although never absolutely fulfilled.

He keeps defining his personal originality in and along his story. This historicity is collective and individual. His development in history is produced in a unique way not only because of his individual originality, but mainly due to the successive vital choices that the human subject keeps making all along his life. There is also a metaphorical use of the word in an anthropologic order.


From this perspective, man has been considered as a walker, a traveller, a pilgrim, in a physical and spiritual religkon. Moreover, starting from studies of compared religions, history of literature and art 16it has been concluded that this image applied to human life constitutes part of the symbolic archetype. The metaphor of the travel offers various advantages for the integration of the knowledge.

Among other reasons, it places the human knowledge historically: But it is also provisory ; it is not consumed completely by any conquest or theory.

Likewise, it gives reasons to integrate extra rational factorssuch as the imagination, in the cognitive process. This is being emphasized by the contemporary hermeneutic philosophy Heidegger, Gadamer, Ricoeur, etc. This is so, given that each story is original: There are children who live only a few days and old people whose lives last for almost a hundred years.

There are those who will never know hunger and others who will walk hand in hand with famine. There are those who will access to higher studies writing complex specialities and those who will only know oral language.

There are men and women whose habitual landscape will be nature and others whose daily background will be grey walls and artificial city lights. In brief, there are not two exactly identical ways. Western modern philosophy based its thinking on the cognoscitive subject Descartes: On the one hand, sciences have shown us that we are part of an evolution process and that we carry in our bodies and genes the accumulation of such process.

Somehow we are this process and we watch the universe by means of the features given by our genetic structure. In other words, we sense the cosmos because we have it in our structure On the other hand, the sciences of language and the hermeneutic philosophy have explained that we always learn from a given language.

Our current debate would not be the same if we lived in the II BC century and expressed ourselves in Greek. Obviously, language is also vresus result of the intellectual activity and it is modified by the acquisition of cisncia knowledge coonflicto new techniques Nowadays we are less naive as regards human understanding. It can also be used in a different scope; thus, in the psychological or logical sphere it may be the more or less broad field where the stream of thinking may take place.

Nevertheless, ciencix phenomenology has given it a greater force. The vital horizon is closely linked to the historic horizon: Xavier Zubiri points out other reflections about the horizon The philosopher on Hermeneutics Hans Georg Gadamer 26 has used abundantly this idea.

His concept of horizon is as follows:. Applying it to the thinking conscience we so speak about the narrowness of the horizon, about the possibility of broadening the horizon, about opening new ones.