Alexander Romanovitch Luria is widely recognized as one of the most prominent neuropsychologists of the twentieth century. This book – written by his. This article focuses on the Soviet psychologist and founder of Russian neuropsychology, Alexander Romanovich Luria, and his contribution to. PDF | This article focuses on the soviet psychologist and the founder of Russian neuropsychology, Alexander Romanovich Luria, as well as to his contribution in.
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Alexander Romanovich Luria Russian: He developed an extensive and original battery of neuropsychological tests, during his clinical work with brain-injured victims of World War IIwhich are still used in various forms. He made an in-depth analysis of the functioning of various brain regions and integrative processes of the brain in general.
Luria’s magnum opus, Higher Cortical Functions in Manis a much-used psychological textbook which has been translated into many languages and which he supplemented with The Working Brain in It is less known that Luria’s main interests, before the war, were in the field of psycho-semantics, that is the research into how people attribute meaning to words and instructions. He became famous for his studies of low-educated populations in the south of the Soviet Union showing that they use different categorization than the educated world determined by functionality of their romanovjch.
The Mind of a Mnemonistabout Solomon Shereshevskywho had highly advanced memory; and The Man with a Shattered Worldabout a man with traumatic brain injury. During his career Luria worked in a wide range of scientific fields at such institutions as the Academy of Communist Education sExperimental Defectological Institute s, s, both in MoscowUkrainian Psychoneurological Academy Kharkivearly sAll-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine, and the Burdenko Institute of Neurosurgery late s.
A Review of General Psychology survey, published inranked Luria as the 69th most cited psychologist of the 20th century. Luria was born to Jewish parents in Kazana regional center east of Moscow. Many of his family were in medicine. According to Luria’s biographer Evgenia Homskaya, his father, Roman Albertovich Luria “worked as a professor at the University of Kazan ; and after the Russian Revolution, he became a founder and chief of the Kazan institute of Advanced Medical Education.
Luria was one of two children; his younger sister Lydia became a practicing psychiatrist. Luria finished school ahead of schedule and completed his first degree in at Romankvich State University.
While still a student in Kazan, he established the Kazan Psychoanalytic Society and romanpvich exchanged letters with Sigmund Freud. Late inhe moved to Moscow, where he lived on Arbat Street. His parents later followed him and settled down nearby.
InLuria met Lev Vygotsky who would influence him greatly. The union of the two psychologists gave birth to what subsequently was termed the Vygotsky, romanovuch more precisely, the Vygotsky-Luria Circle.
During the s Luria also met a large number of scholars, including Aleksei N. LeontievMark Lebedinsky, Alexander ZaporozhetsBluma Zeigarnikmany of whom would remain his lifelong colleagues.
Following Vygotsky and along with him, in mids Luria launched a project of developing a psychology of a radically new kind. This approach alexxnder “cultural”, “historical”, and “instrumental” psychology and is most commonly referred to presently as cultural-historical psychology.
It emphasizes the mediatory role of culture, particularly languagein aelxander development of higher psychological functions in ontogeny and phylogeny. Independently alexandsr Vygotsky, Luria developed the ingenious “combined motor method,” which helped diagnose individuals’ hidden or subdued emotional and thought processes.
This research was published in the US in as The Nature of Human Conflicts and made him internationally famous as one of the leading psychologists in Soviet Russia.
InLuria submitted the manuscript in Russian and defended it as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Lhria not published in Russian until The second title came out inwhile the other two were published in the s. In early s both Luria and Vygotsky started their medical studies in Kharkov, then, after Vygotsky’s death inLuria completed his medical education at 1st Moscow Medical Institute.
The s were significant to Luria because his studies of indigenous people opened the field of multiculturalism to his general interests. Luria’s work continued in this field with expeditions to Central Asia. Under the supervision of Vygotsky, Luria investigated various psychological changes including perception, problem solving, and memory that take place as a result of cultural development of undereducated minorities.
In this regard he has been credited with a major contribution to the study of orality. In response to Lysenkoism ‘s purge of geneticists  Luria decided to pursue a physician degree, which he completed with honors in the summer of After rewriting and reorganizing his manuscript for The Nature of Human Conflictshe defended it for a doctoral dissertation at the Institute of Tbilisi inand was appointed Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences.
Lipchina, a well-known specialist in microbiology with a doctorate in the biological sciences. Luria also studied identical and fraternal twins in large residential schools to determine the interplay of various factors of cultural and genetic human development. In his early neuropsychological work in the end of the s as well as throughout his postwar academic life he focused on the study of aphasiafocusing on the relation between language, thought, and cortical functions, particularly on the development of compensatory functions for aphasia.
For Luria, the war with Germany that ended in resulted in a number of significant developments for the future of his career in both lluria and neurology. He was appointed Doctor of Medical Sciences in and Professor in Of specific importance for Luria was that he was assigned by the government to care for nearly hospitalized patients suffering from traumatic brain injury caused by the war. A second book titled Traumatic Aphasia was written in in which “Luria formulated an original conception of the neural organization of speech and its disorders aphasias that differed significantly from the existing western conceptions about aphasia.
Byhis father, the chief of the gastroenterological clinics at Botkin Hospital, had died of stomach cancer. His mother survived several more years, dying in Following the war, Luria continued his work in Moscow’s Institute of Psychology.
For a period of time, he was removed from the Institute of Psychology, lugia as a result of a flare-up of anti-Semitismand in the s he shifted to research on intellectually disabled children at the Defectological Institute. Here he did his most pioneering research in child psychology, and was able to permanently disassociate himself from the influence that was then still exerted in the Soviet Union by Pavlov ‘s early research. In this book Luria summarized his principal concerns in this field through three succinct points summarized by Homskaya as: Luria’s main contributions to child psychology luris the s are well summarized by the research collected in a two-volume compendium of collected research published in Moscow in and under the title of Problems of Higher Nervous System Activity in Normal and Anomalous Children.
Homskaya summarizes Luria’s approach as centering on: Unskilled children demonstrated acute dysfunction of the generalizing and regulating functions of speech. In the s, at the height of the Cold War, Luria’s career expanded significantly with the publication of several new books. The book has been translated into multiple foreign languages and has been recognized as the principal book establishing Neuropsychology as rpmanovich medical discipline in its own right.
Luria’s other books written or co-authored during the s included: In studying memory disorders, Luria oriented his research to the distinction of long-term memory, short-term memory, and semantic memory. It was important for Luria to differentiate neuropsychological pathologies of memory from neuropsychological pathologies of intellectual operations.
Luria’s productive rate of writing new books in psychology remained largely romanovicb during the s and the last seven years of his life.
Significantly, volume two of his Human Brain and Mental Processes appeared in under lkria title Neuropsychological Analysis of Conscious Activityfollowing the first volume from titled The Brain and Psychological Processes.
The volume confirmed Luria’s long sustained interest in studying the pathology of frontal lobe damage as compromising the seat of higher-order voluntary and intentional planning.
Psychopathology of the Frontal Lobesco-edited with Karl Pribram, was published in Luria published his well-known book The Working Brain in as a concise adjunct volume to his book Higher Cortical Functions romznovich Man. In this volume, Luria summarized his three-part global theory of the working brain as being composed of three constantly co-active processes, which he described as the; 1 Attentional sensory-processing system, 2 Mnestic-programming system, and 3 Energetic maintenance system that had two levels: This model was later used as a structure of the Functional Ensemble of Temperament model matching functionality of neurotransmitter systems.
The two books together are considered by Homskaya as “among Luria’s major works in neuropsychology, most fully reflecting all the aspects theoretical, clinical, experimental of this new discipline. In The Mind of a MnemonistLuria studied Solomon Shereshevskiia Russian journalist with a seemingly unlimited memory, sometimes referred to in contemporary literature as “flashbulb” memory, in part due to his fivefold synesthesia. In The Man with the Shattered World he documented the recovery under his treatment of the soldier L.
Zasetskywho had suffered a brain wound in World War II. According to Oliver Sacksin these works “science became poetry”.
Alexander Romanovich Luria |
In andLuria presented successively his two-volume research study titled The Neuropsychology of Memory. Luria’s book written in the s titled Basic Problems of Neurolinguistics was finally published inand was matched by his last book, Language and Cognitionpublished posthumously in Luria’s last co-edited book, with Homskaya, was titled Problems of Neuropsychology and appeared in Luria’s death is recorded by Homskaya in the following words: As its organizer, Luria introduced the section on neuropsychology.
The next day’s meeting, however, he was not able to attend. His wife Lana Pimenovna, who was extremely sick, had an operation on June 2. During the following two and a half months of his life, Luria did everything possible to save or at least to soothe his wife. Not being able to comply with this task, he dies of a Myocardial infarction on August His funerals were attended by an endless number of people — psychologists, teachers, doctors, and just friends.
His wife died six months later. In her biography of Luria, Homskaya summarized the six main areas of Luria’s research over his lifetime in accordance with the following outline: As examples of the vigorous growth of new research related to Luria’s original research during his own lifetime are the fields of linguistic aphasia, anterior lobe pathology, speech dysfunction, and child neuropsychology.
Luria’s neuropsychological theory of language and speech distinguished clearly between the phases that separate inner language within the individual consciousness and spoken language intended for communication between individuals intersubjectively.
It was of special significance for Luria not only to distinguish the sequential phases required to get from inner language to serial speech, but also to emphasize the difference of encoding of subjective inner thought as it develops into intersubjective speech.
LURIA, ALEXANDER ROMANOVICH
This was in contrast to the decoding of spoken speech as it is communicated from other individuals and decoded into subjectively understood inner language. For the encoding of serial speech, the phases remained the same, though the decoding was oriented in the opposite direction of romanovih between the distinct phases. Luria’s studies of the frontal lobes were concentrated in five principal areas: Luria’s main books for investigation of these functions of the frontal lobes are titled, a The Frontal LobesProblems of Neuropsychologyand c Functions of the Frontal Lobesposthumously published.
Luria’s research on speech dysfunction was principally in the areas of 1 expressive speech, ljria impressive speech, 3 memory, 4 intellectual activity, and 5 personality.
This field was formed largely based upon Luria’s books and writings on neuropsychology integrated during his experiences during the war years and later periods.
In the area of child neuropsychology, “The need for its creation was dictated by the fact that children with localized brain damage were found to reveal specific different features of dissolution of psychological functions. Under Luria’s supervision, his colleague Simernitskaya began to study lria visual-spatial and verbal functions, and aleander that damage to the left and right hemispheres provoked different types of dysfunctions in children than in adults.
This study initiated a number of systematic investigations concerning changes in the localization of higher alexandeg functions during the process of development.
The Luria-Nebraska is a standardized test based on Luria’s theories regarding neuropsychological functioning. Luria was not part of the team that originally standardized this test; he was only indirectly referenced by other researchers as a scholar who had published relevant results in the field of neuropsychology.
Anecdotally, when Luria first had the battery described to him he commented that he had expected that someone would eventually do something like this with his original research.
From Alexxander, the free encyclopedia.
KazanRussian Empire. MoscowSoviet Union. Brain regions Clinical neuropsychology Cognitive neuropsychology Cognitive neuroscience Dementia Romanovch brain Neuroanatomy Neurophysiology Neuropsychological assessment Neuropsychological rehabilitation Traumatic brain injury.